Moorehead City, North Carolina, USA
To say that diving in North Carolina offers a unique experience is an understatement akin to saying the Grand Canyon is larger than a bread box. In a relatively limited area it has some of the best of what diving is all about.
Most of the wrecks date from World War II, sunk in numerous ways, mostly from German U-boats (submarines). In one of those ironic twists where the hunter becomes the hunted, a U-boat is one of the most popular wrecks that brings divers from around the world. To be honest, the idea of diving a sub, at least in this instance, is better than actually diving it. From what I have seen, many people who dive it leave somewhat disappointed, myself included. The reasons for that are simple: the exterior of a sub is minimalist by design, everything is on the inside, and this wreck does not readily invite penetration since it is tight and silty (bad combination) with numerous entanglement hazards. Much of the outer hull has rusted away and it does not much resemble a submarine anymore.
Having said that, the sub was the ONLY disappointment about all of North Carolina diving, everything else exceeded expectations by an order of magnitude. Due to its location the gulf stream flows just off shore, meaning although dives are done miles out into the ocean, water temperatures are in the 70 degree area for most of the summer. Ditch the drysuit and get out the 3mm wetsuit - you can be forgiven for thinking you’re in the Bahamas, it’s that warm. That warm water makes for easy diving and prolific marine life. I was not prepared for the colorful critters and the absolute abundance of life. When our captain briefed us in a truly enjoyable southern drawl saying, "When you get down you may not be able to see the wreck, it’s usually covered in fish but you can drop just below them and you’ll see the wreck just fine," I was entirely certain he was kidding. He wasn’t.
As if wrecks of every shape and size, along with myriad fish species were not enough there is another major item which draws divers to this spectacular region: sand tiger sharks. The Australian name for this species seems much more appropriate - ragged tooth shark, because they have more teeth than can fit in their mouths, making them look entirely sinister and dangerous. It was difficult to tell how many sharks were on the few wrecks they elect to congregate around due to the way they swim in and out of your range of visibility, but a conservative estimate would say 30-50 on a wreck like the Schurz, ensuring you’re not about to fall asleep on that dive. Check out http://www.nc-wreckdiving.com/shipwrecks.html for a list of North Carolina wrecks.
Every which way you can imagine
Here is a list of all the things Florida has to offer. No wait, that would take too long. It might take vastly less space to mention what Florida doesn’t have: volcanoes, mountains, and senior citizens that can drive well. That’s about it. Particularly for divers, Florida seems to have just about everything: caves, wrecks, reefs, and all in abundance.
Even if you’ve never cave dived, and aren’t cave certified, you can still get into a "cave" in Ginnie Springs which is one of the most famous cave diving locations in the world. If you do happen to be cave trained then you likely already know all about northern Florida, no matter where on the globe you call home.
Off the coast there are plenty of wrecks to dive, and more by the day. An active artificial reef program seems to drop a wreck frequently, giving divers more places to play and fish more places to call home, which attracts even more divers. Having had only a precious few days to dive the area I’ve only seen three wrecks (Duane, Bibb and Eagle) but by the accounts of those who have done vastly more diving there than I ever will, they are among the best the state has to offer.
I hear you asking, "So what is it like to dive in Truk Lagoon?" Good question, I’m glad you asked. It’s easy. Most people see the area on either of the two liveaboards, Truk Odyssey or Truk Aggressor. These fairly luxurious ships ferry you all over the lagoon, hitting the best spots and staying on the premiere wrecks for multiple dives so you can explore them properly. The Aggressor, being part of a chain, is better known but without hesitation I’d choose the Odyssey again in a heartbeat: it’s longer, has larger rooms, and carries less passengers (I’ve never been on the Aggressor but the owner of the Odyssey is a former captain of the Aggressor and I’m guessing knows the ship rather well). I’m not sure I could say enough good things about the Odyssey, so I won’t even try. Suffice it to say Odyssey is one of the few liveaboards in the world of that class where the owners are the captain and first mate (along with husband and wife) - they have a vested interest in making sure the customers are happy and have won BEST LIVEABOARD IN THE WORLD honours several times which demonstrates how well they’re doing.
Other options include the Thorfin (a ship which doesn’t move much), and some shore-based dive operations, which use small boats to get people out to the wrecks.
The water is warm, 82ish degrees year round, so most dive in 3mm wetsuit. Four or five dives a day is quite common, with the night dive always taking place on the same wreck as the afternoon dives so you’ll know your way around better. There is plenty of wreck penetration potential (for those properly trained) and you can get deep inside many of the wrecks, but most divers during our two weeks there didn’t venture inside and still raved about the trip. Wrecks ranged from 60′ to 200′ deep, with the vast majority of diving done at 100′ or less, so there was something for all comfort levels. Throw in a well orchestrated shark feeding dive and it is a hard trip to beat. On the non-diving days you can go on tours of the islands and see the remnants of the Japanese fortifications (pill boxes, canons, underground shelters, a sea plane base and more) which really bring history to life.
That Truk had great wrecks was not a surprise, they’re everywhere, it’s what the place is known for. The shocking part was the small stuff, the critters of every shape, size and colour. Pipefish, clownfish, lionfish, crabs, nudibranchs, blennies and gobies abound. If small stuff isn’t to your liking they also have the usual large stuff like sharks, napoleon wrasse, and even the odd manta.
It is disappointing at first to discover Truk Lagoon is mostly full of merchant vessels and not warships, but it has to be remembered they were carrying the implements of war. Most ships were retrofitted with sizeable gun for self defense, some carried tanks, trucks, artillery, landmines, ammunition, torpedoes, fighter planes, and more. And they’re not ALL merchant ships. There’s a destroyer, submarine and Betty bomber which sound like they should be highlights of the trip but aren’t. In comparison to the other wrecks these military vessels are smaller with vastly less penetration potential and character. It’s believed the sub was not hit during the attacks but tried to escape by submerging but in their haste not all hatches were closed in time and it went down with all hands. It was later depth charged so it could not fall into enemy hands.
Technically the place is called "Chuuk", the name it used to have before it was occupied by hostile forces that couldn’t pronounce it right and changed it to "Truk", but divers still generally call it Truk Lagoon, or just "one of the best places to wreck dive in the world".
Courtesy of World War II this was the site of one of the pivotal naval battles of the entire war. Truk was one of the most prized locations in the world’s oceans: almost halfway between Japan and Australia, pretty close to the middle of nowhere. This is where Japanese warships and supply ships would meet to refuel, reload, and repair. The land based fortifications were considerable - if the allied forces had tried to take the islands by landing on them there’s a good chance they’d have gotten slaughtered because the Japanese had been building and digging in for years.
American forces had no plans to wage the battle on land - this was an air to sea battle of the highest order. An early American scout plane was spotted by the Japanese forces who raised the alarm and hurried many of the vessels out of the lagoon before the battle even started, but the ones left behind, mostly merchant ships, were sitting ducks.